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6 months ago (17/01/22) 313 Views

How does a computer work


What is a computer and how does it work?


Before you start programming, it is good to know what a computer is and how it works.

I’ll just talk about some of the most basic things.

Computers are like workaholics. He will do a lot for you, but he will tell you what to do. He will not do anything by himself. Either you tell him or someone else will instruct him on your behalf.

Without further ado about what a computer can do, let’s see how it works. No matter what he does, he does it all at the stage.

How does a computer work

1. He will take some information from the user (input).

2. He will process the information.

3. After processing the result he will return to the user (output).


No matter how complex the task you see the computer doing, it actually does these three tasks.

First come the input stage. Computers cannot do anything without information. The keyboard and mouse in a personal computer are usually used by the user to provide various information to the computer. There are also many input devices. For example, disk drive (CD, DVD, USB pen drive, etc.).

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After that it is processing. Computers process input information in a variety of ways. The central processing unit (CPU) does this. Processing is basically a variety of calculations.

Then there is the output. The result of the processing is called output to return to the user. The standard output device is the screen of a computer monitor. Printers, speakers, disk drives, etc. also have computer output on the device.

Now the question is, how does the computer know when to do something?

The answer is very simple. The job of programmers is to tell the computer how the computer will work. A computer program is just a set of instructions to a computer, detailing how to input, process, and output.

Computers work using binary language. No matter what type of computer it is, it can only understand binary language. The language used by human beings is not understandable to him. Binary language is a language made up of 0 and 1.

In binary language computer receives input, calculates, gives output, stores information.

We humans are not accustomed to working in binary language. Many can work in this language, but their numbers are negligible. So how do ordinary programmers like us instruct computers?


The invention of programming language to solve this problem. We write instructions in our understandable language through programming language. Then, with the help of a translator, our instructions are translated into the computer’s intelligible language. The computer actually works according to that converted instruction.

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This translator is different for each programming language. They are basically divided into two main classes. Compiler and interpreter. These will be discussed later. However, keep in mind that translators convert instructions written in different programming languages ​​or programs into machine languages.



Not to mention computer memory. The whole time you have to input information, work with it and give it output, you have to keep the information somewhere. Computer memory is one such place.

There are many places to keep information in the computer. However, by memory we mean RAM. Any program uses RAM to perform its functions.

The unit of information stored on a computer is the bit. A bit can have a 0 or a 1. A byte is made up of 8 bits. That is, 8 consecutive bits of space in computer memory is collectively called 1 byte space. The importance of bytes is that whatever the size of a memory or RAM, it is divided into 1 byte 1 byte into different areas. Let me explain a little.

We measure area in square feet, square meters. But we use percent or decimal units instead of using these units for buying and selling land. 1 decimal is about 438 square feet. It is ridiculous to buy or sell land less than 1 decimal, because no land can be built on less than that.

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In the same way, although the smallest unit for measuring bit memory, the byte is the functional unit for using memory.

The entire space of a memory module or RAM is divided into many areas by 1 byte. Each of these areas has an address which is a positive integer. This address is called a memory address. Byte is the smallest space in memory that has its own memory address.


When any information is stored in memory, it covers one or more bytes depending on its size. When a computer searches for information in its memory, it uses this memory address to search and process.

A single byte is too small.

1024 bytes together is called 1 kilobyte.

1024 kilobytes together is called 1 megabyte.

1024 megabytes together is called 1 gigabyte.

So to say that your computer’s RAM is 2 GB (GB) actually means that your RAM (1024x1024x1024) is divided into 1 byte area, each of which has a memory address.

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