HomeAsk The UnknownLifeStyleRules of speech. How to prepare for the speech

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Rules of speech. How to prepare for the speech

Rules of speech. Steps to prepare for the lecture


Public communication is the direct communication of the people gathered with a speaker through a speech. Public relations is usually based on a specific topic.
In the book Human Communication, Joeph A Devito said,


“Public speaking may be defined as that form of communication in which a speaker addresses a relatively large audience with a relatively continuous, discourse, usually in a face to face situation.”


Examples: public meetings, stage plays, recitations in front of the audience are all public relations.


Also in the classroom if a student makes a speech on a topic or when a teacher discusses a topic (eg: structure of DNA), or a politician’s campaign speech i.e. political rallies, seminars, convocation ceremonies are all public relations.


Features of public relations


We can distinguish public relations from other communications based on a few features. The features are also-


There is a speaker in public relations. Its role is relatively or seemingly predominant.


The speaker has a large type of speech on a subject.
Public relations takes place in a specific place.


The emergence of mass communication is not as delayed as mass communication. Not as instantaneous as interpersonal communication.


Lectures on the preparation steps Steps in preparing a public speech


Preparing oneself to succeed in public relations is the preparation of a public speech. There are several steps that need to be taken to make public communication effective. The steps are discussed below-


1) Select the Subject and Purpose.


2) Audience Analysis (Analysis the Audience).


3) Research the Topic.


4) Formulate the Thesis and Identify the Major Propositions.


5) Support the Major Propositions.


6) Organize the Speech Materials.


8) Language Awareness / Wording the Speech.


6) Construct the Conclusion and the Introduction.


Rules of speech


1) Select the Subject and Purpose


The subject to be addressed must first be selected. However, in choosing the subject, one must keep in mind whether the subject is fundamental or not A topic needs to be defined so that there is a similarity between the speaker and the listener and the topic is fun and captivating for both. Communication will be fruitful if the subject is selected according to the existing situation.


There are usually two types of speech, namely-


A. Informative
b. Persuasive
A) Informative


The purpose of informative discourse is to inform the public. Through which people will gain knowledge. The special purpose of informative discourse is to highlight a particular aspect of a subject.
For example, in the discourse on computer, the description of computer equipment and its qualities are highlighted.


B) persuasive


The purpose of such a statement is to make the speaker accept the given statement in the light of the point of view of the listener. That is to say, through such discourse the ideas of the speaker are inculcated in the mind of the listener.


For example, when giving a speech about the strike, the speaker presents the positive aspects of the strike to the audience in the form of his point of view.


2) Audience Analysis (Analysis the Audience)


In delivering a speech, a speaker must take into account the psychological aspect of the listener. The speaker should have an idea of ​​what the audience is aware of, what they are most interested in, what kind of qualifications they have, what their opinions, attitudes and beliefs are, what their position is on the speech. In order to create an ideal speech, the speaker has to present the speech keeping in view the following issues of the audience-


A. Age


Age is an important factor. When presenting a speech, the speaker should keep in mind whether the speech will be acceptable to the audience according to age. If a statement deserves to be presented to people of all ages, the presentation varies according to age and position. That is, they are presented differently to the general public, differently to the intellectuals, differently to the students.


B. Gender
It is often seen that men and women have different views on the same subject. The speaker needs to keep this in mind. Care must be taken that the statement does not become one-sided.


C. Country, income and social status


During the analysis of the audience, a speaker should consider whether their income, profession and social status will have any effect on the speech.


D. Religion and righteousness


The listener’s faith in religion must be seen as light or dark. The speaker will have to consider whether the basis of their religious beliefs is related to the chosen subject.


E. Observed


Observations here refer to physical infrastructure. That is, whether there is a necessary seating arrangement for the audience.


F. Other issues


Other issues such as the listener’s willpower, positive attitude, and depth of knowledge should be considered.


Rules of speech


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3) Research the Topic


If both the speaker and the listener want to benefit from the speech then it is necessary to do research on the subject before giving the speech. So if you want to give an informative speech, you have to read articles or magazines about the subject. It remains to be seen whether any information on this subject has recently been published in journals, magazines or journals. Information can also be obtained from an expert in this regard.

4) research to identify the main points to be recorded (Formulate the Thesis and Identify the Major Propositions) speech rules.

The topic that will be discussed is Thesis 8 And if the subject is discussed in detail, it is a proposition or statement.

For example, there are four elements in human blood – this is the thesis. And the material that is discussed is proposition or statement. The statement is made from the main idea of ​​the thesis.

Again, studying at university is a thesis. Why it is good, why it is valuable, what benefits, etc. are statements. That is,

1st proposition – The possibility of a good job is created by studying in the university.

2nd proposition – higher salary is available.

3rd propositionmore job opportunities are available.


4th proposition – Introduction to different cultures.

5th proposition – social evaluation increases.

6th proposition – to get acquainted with famous people.

7th proposition – the range of experience increases a lot.

5) Support the Major Propositions


After identifying the propositions, come to this level to strengthen or support the propositions. The speaker has to show some arguments or statistics to prove this proposition that a good job can be found by studying in a university.

For example, a survey of undergraduate jobs in colleges and universities over the last five years shows that 80% of those who passed from university got jobs, 20% who passed from colleges. The remaining 20% ​​got jobs who passed from other institutions. The survey may be the research of an organization.

In the case of informative discourse, an idea is expanded. Expansion contains descriptions, images, definitions, examples.

Again, in the case of persuasive speech, specific examples, arguments, motivational (doing a job will increase your self-esteem) to stir people’s psychological matter.

For example, if you are not highly educated, you will not have social status, etc.

6) Organize the Speech Materials


If the speaker wants to make the listener listen or remember the speech, he must first organize it. 6 patterns need to be used to organize the structure of speech. It is discussed below-

i) Chronological Pattern (Time Pattern)

Refers to the chronological order of speech. Usually historical issues are in this pattern.

For example, any statement regarding the liberation war is usually started from 1947.

ii) Spatial Pattern


This pattern is usually followed in the case of informative statements. Hospitals, schools, dinosaur structures, and space travel patterns are followed in any country travel discourse.

iii) Topical Pattern


This is the most popular and widely used pattern. An overall topic is discussed in different parts.

For example, when giving a statement on how a state works, the discourse is divided into different parts and one topic is discussed That is, the executive branch of the state, the law department, the judiciary department, etc. are discussed separately.

iv) Problem Solution Pattern


It is commonly used in persuasive speech. There are two parts here. The problems are highlighted in the first part. Later the solutions to those problems were highlighted.

v) Cause-Effective Pattern


This pattern is used in persuasive speech. First the result, then the cause.

vi) The Motivated Sequence


The information is arranged in such a way that the speech creates a positive impression in the listener. It is suitable for both informative and persuasive. There are five steps in this case-

A. Attention

Speak in such a way that the listener pays close attention to the speech. The speech should provide information so that the listener is eager to listen.

B. Requirements


The listener has to prove that there is a need or need for the subject to be addressed.

C. Satisfaction


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The needs or needs of the listener should be conveyed to the listener in such a way that the listener is satisfied.

D. Visualization


Visualization means seeing something with the eyes of the mind. Psychological narrative is described in such a way that the listener space can move away from time. Create trust and feelings in the listener. The positive and negative aspects have to be highlighted.

E. Activation


The speaker should mention something so that the listener is satisfied with the necessity of the subject. For this, special instructions have to be given and the listener has to be motivated to read journals and books.

Rules of speech


8) Language Awareness / Wording the Speech


The language of the main points of the speech and the material with which the speech will be presented should be such that the listeners can understand it immediately. The audience will listen to the speaker only once. So everything should be said very simply, in simple language, so that the listener can easily hear and understand. Therefore, the speaker needs to pay attention to the following issues-


A. Clarity


Early achievement in the case of transparent speaking speech. Here are some suggestions on how to look or get an appointment for antique items.



To avoid wastage of words, it is necessary to refrain from using repetitive and meaningless words.

For example, all together, complete and complete report etc. repetition should be eliminated.



What kind of word will bring vitality in the mind of the listener, it is necessary to bring variety with that kind of word.

Alliteration: Using words that begin with the same letter or pronunciation.

Exaggeration : Exaggeration, rhetoric can be used in speech.

Metaphor: The word metaphor can be used.

Adjectives: Names can be specialized with special ornaments.

Visual analogy: giving analogy about what the audience sees in front of them.

8) Conclusions and role preparation (Construct the Conclusion and the Introduction) speech rules.

In the case of long speeches, there is inconsistency, various things are said over time. Therefore, the central tone of the whole speech should be highlighted in the conclusion. It is necessary to end the speech very clearly.

” The beginning is the most important part of the work ,” Plato said of the beginning of the speech . Basically the beginning of the speech is like the first day class. It is easy to maintain continuity through this. The introduction should be such that the listener welcomes the speaker and the speech and has a positive attitude.

The rules for starting a speech can be started with questions to get the attention of the audience first. Then give an initial idea of ​​the speech. At the same time, it is necessary to give a preliminary idea about the outcome of the discussion.

The two main initiatives are-


To draw the attention of the audience. This can be done by emphasizing the subject matter of the speech, telling funny stories, highlighting unfamiliar facts or figures.

→ The introduction will interest the audience and give them a brief idea of ​​the whole speech.


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