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6 months ago (17/01/22) 185 Views

What is a computer

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What is a computer?

 

A computer is a state-of-the-art electric device. The English word computer originates from the Latin word computare.

The word computer literally means a calculating device. In the past, only calculations were done with the help of computer. But nowadays with the help of sophisticated computers, many kinds of work can be done in addition to performing complex calculations very fast and accurately.

Computers can do billions of calculations in seconds. The speed at which a computer works is calculated in nanoseconds (NS). Nanoseconds are just a fraction of a billionth of a second.

What is a computer

There are many circuits inside the computer. All the functions of a computer are conducted through the flow of electrons. Computer language is a computer language based on electronic signals.

The computer provides results based on the instructions given to the computer through the language understood by the computer. Computer instructions are called programs. Computers are nothing but inanimate objects without programs. Properly programmed, computers can be transformed from inanimate objects to mathematical intelligent devices.

Definition of computer

 

A computer is a special electronic device designed to solve a variety of problems. It can store many instructions at once and execute them one by one if necessary, accurately and quickly.

Who is the father of modern computer?

 

The father of the modern computer is the scientist  Charles Babbage . He was simultaneously an English mechanical engineer, mathematician, inventor and philosopher. He was born in London in 1791.

 

Scientist  Charles Babbage  first invented the use of instruments in 1810 to calculate numbers and tables mechanically. And it was with this in mind that by 1830 he planned to build a device that would be powered by punched cards and be able to perform a series of tasks sequentially. This device is considered to be the first version of the modern computer and is also known as the analytical engine. However, due to lack of funding, Charles Babbage could not complete his project. But even then his analytical engine could mechanically solve various mathematical problems. And many of the features of this engine are still very important in today’s modern computer design. That is why Charles Babbage   is called the father of modern computers .

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The structure of modern computers

 

Although the journey of modern computer technology started in the 1950s, it is now widespread.

Modern computers consist of five parts

 

1. Memory.

2. Mathematical logic part.

3. Control part.

4. Input part.

5. Output part.

1. Memory  :

 

The part of the computer where information is stored is called memory. The computer can store the required information in the memory during working hours and can do all the work including addition, subtraction, multiplication and division by taking the information from here during the required time. Memory is directly connected to other parts of the computer. If you want to work on a computer with any information, first you have to store that information in memory. Memory is of two types. Namely: –

  • Primary memory.
  • Secondary memory.

 

2.  Mathematical logic part  :

 

In this part mathematical problem solving, logic and decision making work is done for processing. This part is all the calculation work on the data; For example: – Performs addition, subtraction, multiplication, division etc. and also performs logical related tasks like ‘no’ and ‘yes’. At the end of the operation the results are stored in the main memory and sent to the output unit, this part is inside the microprocessor.

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3. Control part  :

 

This part controls all the activities by coordinating with different parts of the computer through control bus. This part is also inside the microprocessor. The control part decides when the data will be needed in the memory, whether it should be taken from the cache memory to the memory. The function of receiving input in memory and the process of outputting data after processing is also part of the control. This part of the program is to send instructions to other parts of the program. The controller also controls and controls the other hardware peripherals connected to the computer.

The way the computer works

 

Computers are basically a combination of hardware and software.

Read more : How does a computer work

What is hardware?

 

Hardware refers to all the devices, components and devices that make up the external appearance of a computer   .

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Computer hardware can be basically divided into three parts. Namely: –

  1. Input device.
  2. Output device.
  3. System device.

1. Input Device:

 

The device or device through which any instruction is given to the computer or any data or information or media is input or insert is called input device. Such as: – Keyboard, Mouse, Scanner, Dix, Card Reader, Microphone, Digital Camera etc.

2. Output Device  :

 

The device or device through which the computer transmits or receives any information or data or media is called output device. Such as: – Monitor, Speaker, Printer, Headphones, Projector, Dix, Pen Drive etc.

3. System Device  :

 

All the devices or devices that are required to keep the computer active or not are called system devices. Such as: – Motherboard, hard disk, RAM, processor, power supply etc.

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What is software?

 

Software is the sum of some programs or programs that make the hardware work by creating a relationship between the computer hardware and the user   .

Computer software can be basically divided into two parts. Namely: –

  1.  System software .
  2. Application software .

1. System Software:

 

System software keeps the computer’s ability to execute practical programs successfully by maintaining the coordination of work between different units of the computer. Some of the popular system software are: – Fedora, Mac OSX, Windows XP, Windows Vista, Linux, Windows 7, Windows 7, Windows 10.

2. Application software  :

 

Application software is a program used to solve practical problems or process data. There are thousands of application software such as: – Microsoft Office, Photoshop, Media Player, etc.

How many types of computers and what are they?

 

Computers used in today’s world can be categorized into different types such as: –

  • Types of computers according to the type of work and application.
  • Classification of computers according to structure and nature of work.
  • Digital computers or classification of computers according to size, volume and functionality.

There are two types of computers depending on the type of work and application. Namely: –

  1.  Computers for special purposes.
  2. Computers for general use.

There are three types of computers according to the nature of work or technology. E.g., –

  1. Analog computer.
  2. Digital computer.
  3. Hybrid computer.

There are four types of digital computers or computers according to size, volume and function. Namely: –

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  1. Super computer.
  2. Mainframe computer.
  3. Mini computer.
  4. Microcomputer.

There are 5 types of microcomputers again. Namely: –

 

  1.  Desktop computer.
  2. Laptop computer.
  3. Palmtop computer.
  4. Notebook computer.
  5. Pocket computer.

Take a look at the image below to better understand the type of computer.

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Computer use or application field

 

In this modern age there is a lot of use of computer all around. Nowadays in almost every case the application of computer is eye-catching. The main reason for this is that due to the perfect performance of the computer, speed, memory, automatic performance, endurance, etc., it is possible to do a lot more work in less time. As a result, its application is increasing day by day.

Some notable applications of computer.

  •  Use of computer in communication.
  • Use of computer in office management.
  • Use of computer in education.
  • Use of computers in research.
  • Use of computer in agriculture.
  • Use of computer in data communication.
  • Use of computer in banking.
  • Use of computer in publishing.
  • Use of computer in medical field.
  • Business – Use of commercial computers.
  • Use of computer for entertainment.
  • Use of computer software in design.

Excess of modern computer

 

1.  Speed:

 

Computer works incredibly fast. The reason it is so fast is because it works through an electrical signal, which travels at almost the same speed as the speed of light.

2.  Credibility:

 

Although the computer works fast, its work is perfect. Due to the advanced technology, it is always possible for a computer to perform certain tasks perfectly with a specific program. However, in this case, the program and the data must be 100% accurate. Modern computers have proven that humans make mistakes, but computers do not.

3.  Precision  :

 

The precision of the results obtained in the computer is incomparable. The subtlety of its calculation is very high. In the case of mathematical calculations it is able to give results in many places.

4. Tirelessness:

 

Even if you work continuously for a long time, the computer does not get tired or does not make mistakes in calculations.

5. Memory  :

 

The memory of the computer is very large; Billions of data and instructions can be stored in it.

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6. Reasonable decision  :

 

Not only computer can complete various mathematical processes, but also logic process. Can also make reasonable decisions on various matters.

7.  Versatility  :

 

Today’s computer has become a powerful means of accomplishing complex tasks. Computers can help people with many things, from simple calculations to solving complex scientific problems.

8. Automation  :

 

The computer works automatically. Computers perform the tasks of interdependent stages continuously. This means that the computer can solve the problem by processing the data as per the instructions given.

Some information from Wikipedia has been collected to make the above topic self-contained.


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