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10 months ago (27/01/22) 925 Views

What is IP Internet Protocol?

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IP: Internet Protocol, a logical address used to uniquely identify each host on the Internet is called an Internet Protocol or IP address. Each host has a physical address called MAC address. It determines the company that makes the device. Each host also needs another logical address to connect to the Internet. This logical address is called the IP address. Each host needs an IP address to connect to the Internet. No host or computer can be connected to the Internet without an IP address. Each computer in the network needs an IP address to communicate with each other.

What is IP Internet Protocol

What is an IP address?

What do we all do on the Internet? We all exchange different information on the internet. You may be reading this blog using your phone or your laptop or PC. But where is the information coming from this blog? This information is coming from a server located in one of the countries. And you can load the information from that server with your phone and see it on the screen. Or when you watch a YouTube video or a website, it is associated with information from different servers. You also exchange information when you receive an email or when you send an email somewhere. So in this way, the activity that we do not complete on the Internet is actually the exchange and distribution of information.

Just as in the past we used to send different information from one place to another through mail and letters, just like today we do the same thing through internet. Now suppose I want to send you a letter, but what should I do? Your home must have an address, and then the name of your neighborhood, the name of your area, your police station, your post office, It is possible to send you any information by post mentioning all the addresses of your district etc. In the same way, all of you have my home address one by one. The type of address must be different depending on the place and country. But since the Internet is used by people all over the world and people all over the world receive and send their information from one place to another, a specific address is required to exchange information on the Internet. And this specific address is the IP address. The full name of the IP address is “Internet Protocol Address”. Protocol means a certain rule, that is, it will be in a certain format, it will be different for everyone and everyone will use it to establish a relationship with each other.

Why do we use IP (Internet Protocol) Address?

IP address (Internet Protocol) is a numeric label. It is assigned to each device from a computer network. Internet Protocol (IP) Address is used to communicate with each computer through the network.

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In a word, IP Address is the Logical Identifier of a Network’s Node or Host connection. Each host in the IP network is identified with a specific number. This number is the IP (Internet Protocol). IP (Internet Protocol) is 32 Bit. It can be divided into 4 parts by 8 Bit.

Classification of IP Addresses (Internet Protocol):

According to the version, the IP address is divided into two parts. Namely: –

  • IPv4 (IP version 4).
  • IPv6 (IP version 6).

Types of IP addresses IPv4 and IPv6:

IPv4 (IP version 4):

The full form of IPv4 is Internet Protocol Version 4. This means that this is the 4th version of the Internet Protocol. The basic protocol of the standard Internetworking method is IPv4.

IP version 4 Or the first version of IPv4 was created in 1983 by ARPANET (Advanced Research Projects Agency Network). This is a 32 bit address space. It is possible to use a minimum of 5 billion addresses. IP version 4 is divided into 4 octets. Each part again has 8 bits.

IPv4 is now on the verge of extinction, according to network researchers. The network we are currently using on our phones and computers is the IPv4 network. Such as –

IPv4 Addressing:

IP Address : 8
Bits : 3
Prefix : /29
Subnet Mask : 255.255.255.248

IP Address : 16
Bits : 4
Prefix : /28
Subnet Mask : 255.255.255.240

IP Address : 32
Bits : 5
Prefix : /27
Subnet Mask : 255.255.255.224

IP Address : 64
Bits : 6
Prefix : /26
Subnet Mask : 255.255.255.192

IP Address : 128
Bits : 7
Prefix : /25
Subnet Mask : 255.255.255.128

IPv6 (IP version 6) :

The Internet Assigned Numbers Authority (IANA) created a new version of the IP address. Whose name is IPv6. The full form of IPv6 is – Internet Protocol Version 6.

IPv6 is a 128 bit space. It addresses approximately 340 Undecillion (Undecillion is 340 plus 36 Zero ) addresses. IPv6 is now used in many places. Both protocols are now being used on the Internet as a result of the conversion from IPv4 to IPv6. And to make this task easier, the Internet Engineering Task Force (IETF) has created several systems. These are-

  • Dual Stack.
  • Tunneling.
  • Translation.

Dual Stack :

The method by which the IPv4 and IPv6 protocol can be used simultaneously on a network is called Dual Stack.

Tunneling :

Tunneling is the process by which IPv6 packets can move through an IPv4 network.

Translation :

This method uses a translation method called NAT64 to communicate between devices with an IPv4 and IPv6 protocol.

NAT64 translates packets from IPv4 address to IPv6 address and from an IPv6 address to IPv4 address.

Class or Type of IP :

According to the class, the IP address is divided into 5 parts. And each class has a range. Namely: –

  •  Class A
  •  Class B
  •  Class C
  •  Class D
  •  Class E

Class Name : A
IP Range : 0-127

Class Name : B
IP Range : 128-191

Class Name : C
IP Range : 192-223

Class Name : D
IP Range : 224-239

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Class Name : E
IP Range : 241-250

Class of IP : Let’s know how IP classes work.

Class A

The first bit of the IP address that starts with the binary 0 is the IP of Class A. If the network bit is less than the Host Bit, then it is the IP address of Class A. The first octet of the Class A IP address is for the network and the last 3 octets are for the host.

Altogether the first 8 bits are for the network and the last 24 bits are for the host. Class A IP starts from 0.0.0.0 to 127.255.255.255 and ends at 127.

Network : 8 Bit

Host : 8 bit.

This Class A IP address starts from 0.0.0.0 to 127.255.255.255. If we need a lot more hosts in our network, we can use Class A IP address. Such as –10.0.0.1 to 126.255.255.254.

Class B

The Class B IP address starts at 128.0.0.0 and ends at 191.255.255.255. The value of the first two bits of this Class B IP Address will be 10. The first 16 bits are the network bits and the remaining 16 bits are the host bits.

When we need the same number of networks and hosts in the network, we can use the IP address of Class B if desired.

Network : 8 bit
Host : 8 bit.

If the number of Network Bit and Host number is almost equal then it should be taken as IP Address of Class B.

E.g.- 128.1.0.1 to 191.255.255.254

Class C

If the number of network bits is more than the number of hosts, select the IP address of the class C. Class C starts from 192.0.0.0 and ends at 223.255.255.255. The first 24 bits are used for the network and the last 8 bits are used for the host. We can use the Class C IP address when we need more network and less host in our network.

Network : 8 bit.
Host : 8 bit.

Class C’s IP starts at 192 and ends at 223.

The value of the first 3 bits of this IP address will be 110. In case of this type of IP, 24 bit network and 8 bit host.

If the number of network bits is more than the host, then the IP address of Class C must be selected.

Example: 192.0.1.1 to 223.255.254.254

Class D

 

Class D is a special class IP address. Its range is from 224.0.0.0 to 239.255.255.255Class D IP addresses are not open to everyone. The IP address of this network is used for Multicast Group.

This is a special type of IP class called Multicast Network. This type of IP is used to find all the routers of a host network.

The IP of this class ranges from 224 to 239.

Example: 224.0.0.0 to 239.255.255.255

Class E

 

The range of IP address / IP address from 240.0.0.0 to 255.255.255.255 is called Class E.

IP addresses of this range are commonly used for biological research. Here the IP address 255.255.255.255 is used for broadcast. Class E IPs are commonly used for research, with the IP in Class E starting at 240 and ending at 255.

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Example: 240.0.0.0 to 254.255.255.254

Also the IP address is divided into two more parts namely:

  • Private IP Address.
  •  Public IP Address.

Private IP Addresses  are IP addresses that are not routable, meaning that all IP addresses that cannot be accessed through the Internet. Each class has some private IP addresses, the range of which is mentioned below. In case of Class A its range is from 10.0.0.0 to 10.255.255.255. In case of Class B its range is from 172.16.0.0 to 172.31.255.255. In case of Class C its range is from 192.168.0.0 to 192.168.255.255.

Public IP Address:

All IP addresses that can be accessed through the Internet are called public IP addresses. All IP addresses except private IPs are called public IPs.

When the limit of IPv4 is over, how is it used in new devices today?

You are thinking that IPv4 limit is only four billion and we have finished all IPv4 addresses till date, so how are those who are buying new mobiles or new computers generating new IP addresses for them? Because the list is over.

So those requests will go from the same address to the web servers and your router knows exactly from which device these requests were made and accordingly it provides the data received from your router web server to that device. So this NAT system hides a lot of addresses behind one IP address and we are still working on those four billion addresses.

Some more about IP address

If you want to check the IP address of your device, simply enter Google and go to the search bar and type “What is my IP”. Diameter, you will find your address in the search results. There are some people who use the internet by changing their real address, but there is no need to think that people hide their IP only for illegal activities, many good deeds also need IP hidden to protect their privacy later on, In order to securely exchange important information, to collect data from any of the web sites that are not permitted in your area, it is necessary to hide the IP for various reasons.

Last word

I hope you do not have to understand what the IP address is and what kind of it is, if you still have any questions about the IP address, do not forget to let me know in the comments, and if you like the post, do more. Like and share more with friends, so I will not say more today, you will all be well and healthy.

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